The Anatolian Shepherd Dog, also known as the Anatolian Karabash Dog, the Anatolische Herdershond, the Coban Köpegi, the Kangal Dog, the Anadolu Kopek, the Karabas, the Turkish Guard Dog, the Turkish Sheepdog and the Karabash Dog, is an ancient guardian breed with its origin in Turkey. The breed was developed to withstand harsh climatic conditions and thrive in the lifestyle of nomadic shepherds, by guarding their flocks of sheep and herds of goats. Loyalty, hardiness and independence are the most valued characteristics of this breed. These dogs first came to America in the mid-1900s. Anatolian Shepherd Dogs are faithful to a fault, highly intelligent and obedient when well trained. They were admitted to the Working Group of the American Kennel Club in 1995.
This definitely is not a dog for everyone. If not properly socialized and trained, Anatolians can become unmanageable with strangers, and sometimes even with their owners. Anatolian Shepherds do best in large homes with lots of space, and they enjoy being outdoors where they can be on their best watch. These are intensely alert and territorial dogs, bred to be wary and watchful. Their strong protective instincts must be channeled properly to make them agreeable members of the canine community.
The Anatolian Shepherd Dog originated in Turkey, and it is estimated that the breed may be as many as 6,000 years old. It originally was used as a combat dog for fighting and hunting large game, including lions and horses. The breed eventually was used to protect livestock from wild predators, and its size, coat and color evolved so that the breed would blend in with the flocks that it guarded. Anatolian Shepherds were bred to have a strong and independent nature, so that they could manage and protect livestock without constant attention from their owners. The breed's strength and speed are legendary, and they can thrive in both hot summers and cold winters.
In 1967, Lt. Robert Ballard of the US Navy acquired a pair of working shepherd puppies when he was stationed in Turkey. He brought them to America upon the end of his duty, where they produced their first litter in 1970. Their offspring became the foundation for the Anatolian Shepherd Dog in the United States. The Anatolian Shepherd Dog Club of America was formed in 1970. The American Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1975 as being eligible to show in its Miscellaneous class starting in 1996. In June 1998, the AKC gave full recognition to the Anatolian Shepherd Dog effective June 1999, as a member of the Working Group. There is some dispute as to the precise origin of the breed.
Dog enthusiasts within Turkey dispute that the American Anatolian Shepherd is a true Turkish flock guardian. Instead, those experts recognize three distinct regional flock-guarding breeds: the Akbash in the wes of Turkey, the Kangal in the central region, and the Kars in the east. The American Anatolian Shepherd is thought to have derived from Turkish flock-guarding dogs of varying type, temperament and coloration, which initially did not breed true to type. While this debate goes on even today, many authorities agree that there are four distinct Turkish flock-guardian breeds: 1) the Anatolian Shepherd Dog, which has been refined in America, crossed with true-breeding Kangal Dogs and now itself breeds true; 2) the Akbash Dog; 3) the Kangal Dog; and 4) the Kars Dog. Turkish canine experts remain of the belief that the American Anatolians are highly variable in type, despite the addition of many Kangal Dog crosses.
The Anatolian Shepherd Dog has spread throughout the United States into Canada, Mexico, Japan and Europe. They still vary in color – some have black heads, while others are white-headed. Their tail tends to hang low until they are excited, when it quickly curls up over the back in typical spitz-like fashion. While with firm and careful training Anatolians can become trusted pets, their instinct is to be distrustful of strangers and to treat them all as a significant threat. According to one author: "When arriving at our home, neither long-term friends nor strangers would be foolish enough to get out of their cars. They must sit there patiently and await the arrival of the dogs' owners." Today's Anatolian Shepherd Dogs retain their traits of being naturally imposing, ferociously strong and intensely protective.
The average life span of the Anatolian Shepherd Dog is 10 to 13 years. Breed health concerns may include cancer, ear infections, entropion, hip dysplasia and hypothyroidism. Otherwise, they appear to be healthy, hearty dogs.
Anatolian Shepherds are truly a working breed. Designed to be protectors of livestock, these dogs take work very seriously. Excellent watchdogs with a loud, deep bark; neither fox nor burglar will get past an Anatolian Shepherd. They are independent and stubborn, but devoted to their family and are an ideal working dog for farmers. This is not a family dog, but a working dog, and potential owners should do as much research as possible before committing to an Anatolian Shepherd.
This large breed should not live in an apartment. Though Anatolian Shepherds need less exercise than other breeds of comparable size, they still need plenty of walks and daily time to run. Organized games of catch or fetch don't interest this breed. If they don't have livestock to work with, their desire to work can be satisfied by pulling a sled or cart, or engaging in tracking activities.
Farms are the ideal living space, as they have an inborn desire to work and protect flocks, and benefit from the open space to run. Families with small children should think twice about adopting an Anatolian. While they will bond well with members of their own family, they often don't react well to children they do not know.
Anatolian Shepherds are easily trained by a confident leader, but are not for first-time dog owners. They are stubborn, dominant dogs, and a strong and consistent hand is necessary to establish leadership. This breed will take over the house if given even a little leeway. Their innate desire to protect can not be "trained" out of them, but their behavior can be kept within limits. While you may not be able to keep an Anatolian from barking to alert a stranger's presence, he can be taught when to stop barking.
The Anatolian was bred to be a livestock protector and he will grow to become fiercely protective of his flock, including family members. Wary of strangers, an Anatolian can quickly develop aggression if not kept in check. Early socialization to new people and experiences, as well as firm leadership can keep aggression from developing. Anatolian Shepherds determine on their own who is a "safe" visitor and who is not. New visitors to the home should never try to pet an Anatolian without a proper introduction, and though Anatolians bond well with children in their own family, other children can be perceived as a threat.
Additionally, as flock protectors, they instinctively drive away all animals that aren't part of his flock. Should a neighbor's dog wander into his territory, an Anatolian can cause serious injury, or even death.
Anatolian Shepherds have a reputation for barking at night. When they hear sounds in the distance, they are often set off, and their booming bark can wake up a neighborhood.
If not simulated enough mentally, Anatolian Shepherds can become destructive when bored. A large dog with a strong jaw, they can easily rip through drywall or destroy furniture. Commitment to an Anatolian's need to work is impartive when adopting this breed.
Large, rugged, powerful and impressive, possessing great endurance and agility. Developed through a set of very demanding circumstances for a purely utilitarian purpose; he is a working guard dog without equal, with a unique ability to protect livestock. General impression - Appears bold, but calm, unless challenged. He possesses size, good bone, a well-muscled torso with a strong head. Reserve out of its territory is acceptable. Fluid movement and even temperament is desirable.
Size, Proportion, Substance
General balance is more important than absolute size. Dogs should be from 29 inches and weighing from 110 to 150 pounds proportionate to size and structure. Bitches should be from 27 inches, weighing from 80 to 120 pounds, proportionate to size and structure. Neither dog nor bitch appear fat. Both dog and bitch should be rectangular, in direct proportion to height. Measurements and weights apply at age 2 or older.
Expression should be intelligent. Eyes are medium size, set apart, almond shaped and dark brown to light amber in color. Blue eyes or eyes of two different colors are a disqualification. Eye rims will be black or brown and without sag or looseness of haw. Incomplete pigment is a serious fault. Ears should be set on no higher than the plane of the head. V-shaped, rounded apex, measuring about four inches at the base to six inches in length. The tip should be just long enough to reach the outside corner of the eyelid. Ears dropped to sides. Erect ears are a disqualification. Skull is large but in proportion to the body. There is a slight centerline furrow, fore and aft, from apparent stop to moderate occiput. Broader in dogs than in bitches. Muzzle is blockier and stronger for the dog, but neither dog nor bitch would have a snipey head or muzzle. Nose and flews must be solid black or brown. Seasonal fading is not to be penalized. Incomplete pigment is a serious fault. Flews are normally dry but pronounced enough to contribute to "squaring" the overall muzzle appearance. Teeth and gums strong and healthy. Scissors bite preferred, level bite acceptable. Broken teeth are not to be faulted. Overshot, undershot or wry bite are disqualifications.
Neck, Topline, Body
Neck slightly arched, powerful, and muscular, moderate in length with more skin and fur than elsewhere on the body, forming a protective ruff. The dewlap should not be pendulous and excessive. Topline will appear level when gaiting. Back will be powerful, muscular, and level, with drop behind withers and gradual arch over loin, sloping slightly downward at the croup. Body well proportioned, functional, without exaggeration. Never fat or soft. Chest is deep (to the elbow) and well-sprung with a distinct tuck up at the loin. Tail should be long and reaching to the hocks. Set on rather high. When relaxed, it is carried low with the end curled upwards. When alert, the tail is carried high, making a "wheel." Both low and wheel carriage are acceptable, when gaiting. "Wheel" carriage preferred. The tail will not necessarily uncurl totally.
Shoulders should be muscular and well developed, blades long, broad and sloping. Elbows should be neither in nor out. Forelegs should be relatively long, well-boned and set straight with strong pasterns. The feet are strong and compact with well-arched toes, oval in shape. They should have stout nails with pads thick and tough. Dewclaws may be removed.
Strong, with broad thighs and heavily muscled. Angulation at the stifle and hock are in proportion to the forequarters. As seen from behind, the legs are parallel. The feet are strong and compact with well-arched toes, oval in shape. Double dewclaws may exist. Dewclaws may be removed.
Short (one inch minimum, not tight) to Rough (approximately 4 inches in length) with neck hair slightly longer. Somewhat longer and thicker at the neck and mane. A thick undercoat is common to all. Feathering may occur on the ear fringes, legs, breeching, and tail.
All color patterns and markings are equally acceptable.
At the trot, the gait is powerful yet fluid. When viewed from the front or rear, the legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. With increased speed, footfall converges toward the center line of gravity. When viewed from the side, the front legs should reach out smoothly with no obvious pounding. The withers and backline should stay nearly level with little rise or fall. The rear assembly should push out smoothly with hocks doing their share of the work and flexing well.
Alert and intelligent, calm and observant. Instinctively protective, he is courageous and highly adaptable. He is very loyal and responsive. Highly territorial, he is a natural guard. Reserve around strangers and off its territory is acceptable. Responsiveness with animation is not characteristic of the breed. Overhandling would be discouraged.
Blue eyes or eyes of two different colors.
Overshot, undershot, or wry bite.
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Sources: American Kennel Club